How specialized can shoes become? Last year I watched many runners at the Jungle Marathon Amazon struggle with waterlogged shoes. The race went through rivers and swamps, dirt roads, sand on beaches and in the jungle, and through all kinds of rocks, roots, and other jungle junk. I remember one racer whose waterlogged Hoka’s seemed to each weigh three pounds after a day going through water, sand, and jungle. I saw shoes after shoes that were filled with sand and dirt, and were also waterlogged. This makes one’s race harder as you have to lift that weight with every step.
I have run races where my shoes were wet from stream or river crossings, or rain, or from puddles. Now Reebok has introduced their All-Terrain Series shoe as a solution to the problem with water. The shoes were designed to help runners in the Spartan Race Series of obstacle courses.
The Rebook All-Terrain Series Shoe
The Reebok All-Terrain Series shoe is a new shoe made for the popular obstacle races popping up worldwide – but I think they’ll be valuable in any race or event where water is a problem and traction is important. It’s named after the ever-popular Spartan Race Series and was designed and engineered in cooperation with the Reebok Spartan Race community. An important feature is the mesh H2O Drain ports that drain water quickly through the upper and midsole. The Super model has four drain holes on each side. The Sprint model has small drain holes all over the mesh upper.
The shoe has an outsole with square indented lugs and mid-foot teeth offering superior traction to shed mud. There are even lugs on the front toe of the shoe. The shoe is lightweight and breathable, with a rubberized tongue that will not absorb water and has holes to help expel water. Under the foot is a RockGuard plate to provide protection from rocks and other hard or sharp objects. The upper is made of DuraGrip for durability and ION Mask-fabric to repel mud and water. The shoe’s colors are vivid and bright.
There are two models, an All-Terrain Super and an All-Terrain Sprint. The Super is made for longer distance races and is engineered with more cushioning and stability. The Sprint is made for shorter distance races with a light-weight midsole and a low drop.
This is a serious shoe for obstacle course racers or events were water is a problem. It’s a shoe that can handle any abuse a Spartan Race can give it so you are unstoppable on any course – provided your legs and body don’t quit. I read reviews of Spartan racers who had tested the shoe and all swore by the H2O Drain ports. Having spent a week last October in the Amazon, I saw what wet shoes do to a runner’s feet. I think these would be great in the Amazon or any event with lots of water.
The Reebok All-Terrain Super retails for $119.98 while the Sprint is $109.98. Reebok says they should be in stores the end of April. They are also available through the Reebok website. I’m told they run a bit small so it is recommended to go up a half size. Reebok also offers the option to design your own shoe with a variety of colors for the upper, midsole, laces, tongue, and more. Here’s the link to check out the Reebok All-Terrain Series shoes.
Of course, remember to try any shoe for a while before committing to wear it in a race or long distance run/hike. Make sure the fit works on your feet. Make sure any shoes you buy for a specific event will hold up through whatever it throws at your feet.
The Spartan Race Series
The Spartan Race Series is an international obstacle racing series with three levels of courses: a 3-mile Sprint, an 8-mile Super and a 10-12 mile Beast. You will run, jump and crawl your way over a dozen or more obstacles. Courses are uniquely designed to test your mental and emotional fitness and push you past your limits. Race as an individual, as a part of a team or both!
Choose your Spartan Race here. There are races in many states, as well as Canada, England, France, and 11 other countries. Spartan has offered a discount to my readers interested in trying a Spartan Race. You can get 15% off any Spartan Race in the continental U.S.
If the idea of an obstacle race interests you, Spartan offers a free eBook, You’ll Know at the Finish Line: The Spartan Guide to the Sport of Obstacle Racing.
A FREE SPARTAN RACE ENTRY: If you are interested in a free entry into a 2014 Spartan Race in the continental U.S., write a comment to this blog post and tell me your thoughts on the All-Terrain shoe and why you deserve a free entry. The deadline is midnight Saturday, April 26, 2014. I will pick randomly pick one response on Sunday, April 27 and send that person the code for a free race.
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Foot Care Products, Footwear, Footwear Products
Occasionally I see runner’s shoes that have wear holes in the material in the heel counter. This picture from Dan shows his shoes with holes to the outside of center on both heels. I emailed the following suggestion.
I’d try an ENGO Back of Heel Patch. They are made to shape to the curve of the back of the heel counter. Put them in when the shoe is dry. Rub them a bit in a curving motion to help them form to the shape of the shoe. Then peel off the paper backing and apply from the center outwards to the sides. Rub well so they adhere to the shoe’s material. You could also try the large ovals if the hole is small. The blue ENGO patches are very slick and can take a lot of wear. Once the blue wears down to expose white, replace the patch. Sometimes the holes are on the sides of the heel.
Last summer at Western States, I had a runner whose shoe was rubbing her heel raw. You can see from the image that she has a prominent heel bump. This, of course, contributed to her problem. This is the kind of problem one needs to plan for before it becomes a major issue – especially at the event the magnitude of Western States.
We decided to cut a notch out of the outside of her shoe’s heel. This allowed the back of the shoe to spread apart for her large heel bump. Then I applied an ENGO Back of the Heel Patch to the inside of the shoe’s heel counter. This provided some protection to her heel bump.
The large ENGO ovals can also be used when there is a small area to be covered.
I have been a fan of ENGO Blister Prevention Patches since I first discovered them years ago. The ovals are perfect for the common areas at the side of the heel where blisters form at the junction of insole and heel counter. The large rectangles are great to put on insoles underneath the ball of the foot, another common problem area.
Check out the ENGO website for more information. ENGO products are available through Zombierunner. If you are in Australia or New Zealand, ENGO products are available through Rebecca Rushton’s Blister Prevention website.
Disclosure: Tamarack Habilitation Technologies supplies me with ENGO Patches as I need them for races.
Filed under: blister care, Books, Foot Care, Foot Care Products, Footwear, Footwear Products, Health, Sports
I love reading the unsolicited email and testimonials from athletes who have discovered Fixing Your Feet. They help motivate me to keep going. Here are two. The first is a simple sentence. The second is a personal story I received last week. Thanks everyone who has passed along their story.
I’m pretty sure Fixing Your Feet has saved most of us at one point. ~ an email from Deb Bosilevac.
Then Billy Pearce (husband, father of 3 boys, nurse and ultrarunner) shared his story:
My many years of ultrarunning with a three shoe size difference in feet caused by a traumatic injury as a child has always been a challenge with shoes and blisters. So I choose ultrarunning as my passion! I have had two DNF’s in the Australian classic Coast to Kosci 240km beach to Australia’s highest peak. So this year my attempt to get a finish was one of real attention to where things had gone wrong before.
This year I had my podiatrist and friend on my crew, (Brad White, from Footcare Woden, Canberra ACT Australia). I attend his clinic monthly as routine and we have planned all year for this race. Brad is also a gifted runner.
Best footcare ever. In over 42 hours 26 minutes of running I needed two stops to attend to feet – totaling less than 15 minutes for both stops! I gave him a copy of Fixing Your Feet and I think we have created a new passion for him.
I found your work after a 48 hour race when my feet become so bad I was reduced to painful shuffle for last 24 hours then weeks of healing. I am now able to race 24 hours on a track without a scratch and as we say, “If you do not have a plan for your feet, you do not have a race plan.” Thanks heaps for the help and advice you give so freely.
Do you have the 5th edition of Fixing Your Feet? Last summer while working on feet at the Michigan Bluff aid station of Western States, a runner’s crew member came up to ask me if I’d sign his copy of Fixing Your Feet. While I signed it, I told him he had a very outdated book the 2nd edition! Every edition has gotten better and larger with a lot of new and updated information. Maybe I am biased, but the 5th edition is the best ever.
If you have older editions, you owe it to yourself to invest in the 5th edition. You can purchase it through my website, Zombierunner, and most online bookstores. At Amazon, it’s available in either print or Kindle formats.
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Foot Care Products, Footwear, Footwear Products, Sports, toenails
Several months ago I had the good fortune to work on the medical team at the Jungle Marathon Amazon. My specific role was foot care of the 78 runners and to work with the others on the medical team to teach them good foot care techniques. I learned some things that I am calling, Your Event Homework…” By that I mean, your homework is to consider these five things that, if you learn them, can help you be more successful in the event.
Over seven days, I got to know most of the runners. The race offered a one-day, four-day, or seven-day event, and runners were required to carry all their gear and food in a backpack. Hammocks were mandatory and everyone had to carry a mandatory kit of emergency supplies. Because of all the gear and food, some runners limited their medical supplies to the most basic (read: as small as possible). Others had large plastic bins or bags of their mandatory gear. Most had planned well.
As runners came through the pre-race check-in to have the mandatory gear inspected, I talked to a lot of them about their shoes, socks, and – their feet. While doing this, I applied ENGO Blister Prevention Patches into many shoes. While I had a good supply of the patches, this would be the only time to get them into runner’s shoes. Once the race started, their shoes would be wet and the patches would not stick. I noticed that there was a good mix of shoes even though the runners were from around the world.
Then the race started.
Three miles into the race, there was a stream crossing. After that, their feet were almost always wet or full of sand or grit. Here are the five main things I saw.
- At the end of day one, one runner asked for help with his insoles. The sand and grit had worn holes in both heels. I could tell, however, that they were well worn even before he started. We dried out the insoles and I cut away any rough edges. Fortunately, the sun had dried the insoles enough to apply ENGO patches over the holes.
- Some runners had chosen shoes that were minimalist in design, and some did not hold up well in the rough trails in the jungle, where rocks, roots, and plants tore at the shoes’ uppers. Two runners’ shoes were shredded at their sides. The handiwork of one of the runners saved the shoes as he sewed the uppers back together with dental floss.
- Several runners had made bad choices in socks. All cotton socks have no place in any athletic event, much less anything over a 5km race. One runner in particular had low-rise cotton socks suitable for walking in the park, but not a seven-day race in the jungle. Another runner had only two pairs of socks, and the first pair had holes in both heels at the end of the first day.
- Some runners experienced problems with toenails that affected their race. Long nails, untrimmed nails, and nails with rough edges cause problems, which can lead to toe blisters, and black toenails.
- While some of the runners managed their feet by themselves, many came to the medical team day after day. While we were there to help, time and supplies were limited – especially time. Runners that can patch their own feet are ahead of the game. Some had the right supplies, while many others with small mandatory gear kits, did not have the necessary equipment. The medical team worked hard to patch feet as we could. Whenever we could, we made sure the runners saw what we were doing so they learned how to do it themselves. By the end of the race, I saw more that a few runners that were working on their feet and helping others.
Lessons to Learn:
- Make sure your insoles are in good shape. Many runners fail to remove their insoles and inspect they – to see if they need replacing. Most standard insoles are flimsy and should be replaced after several hundred miles. For a $25-$30 investment of new insoles, you’ll gain support and comfort. Investing in a marathon, ultramarathon, multi-day race, can be costly. Yes, there’s the money side, but there’s also the gear required, time spent in training, and travel. This is not the time to skimp on footwear. Chose good, high-quality shoes – preferably a design you have worn before and know works on your feet. And whatever you do, don’t wear old shoes that have seen better days.
- Invest in good, high-quality socks – new socks – not some dug out of your socks drawer that are threadbare. Find the right socks for your feet. Try Injinji socks if you have toe blister problems. Try a thin liner with a bit heavier outer sock. Try several types of socks to find the right amount of cushion and support.
- Learn how to care for your toenails. That means how to trim them and file them smooth so they don’t catch on socks or hit on the top or front of the shoe’s toe box.
- Runners can help themselves by learning how to manage their feet and treat any blisters that might develop. While some events have medical personnel and staff experienced in foot care, many don’t. Or they don’t have the best choices in supplies. Better to be prepared and know what your feet need – and how to manage your own feet. Then if there are people providing foot care, you can use them, and tell them if you need or want certain things done.
In the same way you train for an event, and invest in clothes and packs, and food, you must invest in your feet.
This blog post is a summary of Stefanie Bacon’s experience with Vibram FiveFinger Lontra’s in the Jungle Marathon Amazon. The first image shows Stefanie in one of the water crossings. She did the four-day 122km race and was the second place female. When I noticed she was running in FiveFingers, I asked if she could write a short review of the shoes. Here’s her report followed by information on the Lontras.
I have been running in my Vibram FiveFingers for over 2 years now. I am very careful choosing which ones to run in, depending of the terrain. When I decided to run the Jungle Marathon Amazon, I decided to research which ones would be best as I knew I was going to encounter water crossings, soft sandy beaches, mud swamps, forests, creepy crawlies on my ankles etc. So I knew they had to be somewhat more resistant then the ones I use to run on normal roads and sand tracks. I went for the Lontra, which have the thickest sole, and extra protection over the toes, and are higher on the ankles (to avoid sand coming into them so easily).
The second photo shows Stefaine’s Lontras.
For a race like Jungle Marathon I really found my FiveFingers Lontra’s to be an advantage, especially at water crossings and soft sand. It was way easier because you can swim in them without feeling any kind of weight on your feet, and when running in soft sand, no sand came into them and my feet felt really light. Like with any other shoes you need to really be careful with cut off trees, to not step on one of them, but I must say the Lontra’s made me feel confident, as they are way more resistant then any other Five Fingers. One thing I did realize, is when I did the water crossings, as the fabric they are made of is meant to be water resistant the water didn’t escape the shoe so quickly like other Vibrams I have which are made of neoprene, but this didn’t make my feet suffer in any way.
The only problem I had (which I only realized on the third day what was causing that problem) were my big toe nail and my pinky toe nail, I felt some pressure on them and couldn’t understand why, after a lot of thinking I realized that it was my socks, when using five fingers you need to make sure that your toes fit perfectly into the sock (I highly recommend to use Injinji, I was wearing the Nike ones and those where not good for my toes). The image here shows her toes taped with StrengthTape Kinesio tape.
I don’t recommend anyone who is starting to use Vibram FiveFingers to do a race like this in them; it is essential to have a lot of experience, and test different styles on different terrains.
Vibram FiveFinger Lontras
Vibram Men’s Lontras are shown in the next photos. You can see in the first image how high they ride up the ankle and the strapping system. The next photo shows the more aggressive than normal tread.
Here’s Vibram’s website description: The all-new Lontra makes cold weather running in minimalist footwear a breeze. A multi-layer laminate upper with fully taped seams provides insulation and water resistance. The micro-pile fleece liner is soft against the skin while helping wick perspiration away from the foot. Other features include a neoprene heel cuff to keep out snow and debris, and a reinforced hook-and-loop closure for a snug and secure fit. Run safely at night with reflective surfaces for enhanced visibility. The 4mm EVA midsole provides insulation from frozen surfaces, and the TC-1 Dura outsole provides traction, durability and superior plating protection.
Stefanie made a good choice in the Lontra’s for her Jungle Marathon Amazon race. The shoes hardly showed any wear after her race. I could see these shoes working for similar events and trail runs. Considering the other shoes I saw runner’s wearing at the Jungle marathon, the Lontras performed well, did not fall apart, and did not become waterlogged. For an event where water, sand and mud, and streams or swamps are on the route, these shoes are worth a look.
For the record, the Jungle Marathon Amazon also had a marathon one-day race and the main event, a seven day 254km race.
The Amazon Jungle Marathon had 78 runners. Most of them did not have problems with their shoes – but some did.
Most shoes were trail runners with good tread. I saw a lot of Salomon shoes and a mix of everything else. At least one runner wore Hokas and another wore Vibram Five Fingers. Every day I tried to watch the runners and check with shoes.
There was so much water and sand that their shoes were always wet and covered in sand – with the exception of when we spent the night in the deep jungle camp. Even then, it was dirt that caked the shoes.
The afternoon before the race started, seven of us hiked three miles into the first day’s checkpoint. It gave me a taste of what the runners would start with the next morning. The jungle is unforgiving. Roots, rocks, and vines are everywhere. Leaves and ferns are on the trail and hanging over it. Low hanging branches and tree stumps line the trail. Inattention to the trail will lead to catching your foot on roots and vines, stubbing your toes, or turning an ankle. Inattention to the stuff alongside and up high on the trial will lead one into running into something hanging head height.
When they got to the checkpoint, they had their first water crossing, a deep stream that once they crossed, took them into a swamp. Two other days started on a beach where they had 200 to 300 yard plus river crossings – pulling themselves and their packs along a rope. You get the picture.
At the end of the first day several runners had major problems with their shoes. As you can see from the first picture, the shoes were coming apart where the uppers meet the midsole. The mesh in the shoe’s upper was torn. Without repair, the next day the shoes would have fallen apart.
Mesh uppers have become popular in many road and trail shoes. In fact it’s hard to find shoes without mesh. Mesh makes the shoes lighter and cooler. Water typically drains better too. In the Amazon, these mesh shoes were worn by most all the runners. And they were filled with sand and trail junk. With the water, they became much heavier than normal.
In the Amazon, the vines, branches, rocks, and whatever else the jungle threw at the runner’s feet destroyed the shoes’ mesh. On a mountain trail race, the same thing can happen. All it takes is one swipe across a sharp rock or root.
Remember that mesh allows grid, dust, dirt and sand to get inside. The mesh is also susceptible to tearing, especially at the junction of the upper and midsole.
Fortunately, one of the runners was an expert with needle and thread. He expertly and patiently sewed the mesh back into place – more than once. The second picture shows a runner’s shoe that has been repaired. If you look closely, you can see the thread at the bottom edge of the mesh.
The last two pictures show how Roberto Domingues Areiro used dental floss to sew Jean-Paul van der Bas’ shoes back together.
Another runner wore Hokas and loved them. For the first six days they served her well. For the final day, she switched to a lighter pair of regular shoes. The reason was evident. She realized that her Hokas were waterlogged and each weighed two pounds. Hokas are larger than average shoes. Every pound on a foot is equal to five pounds on the back. For the runner, that meant carrying an additional 20 pounds in her pack.
Remember that while your shoes may be fine when they are dry, once they go through water, their weight can increase dramatically. All that weight is added stress on your legs and back.
Remember that where ever your race, consider the terrain and conditions when you pick your shoes. Making sure you have good shoes, as close to new as possible, but broken in to your feet. Don’t chance your race to a pair of old and worn shoes.
The runner who wore Vibram Five Fingers did well. She was used to the unique shoes and had trained with the miles necessary to do 142km in the minimalist shoes. She had minor problems with her big toes and pinky toes that we taped, but she managed to complete the race.
Remember that if you wear minimalist shoes in a race, make sure you put the miles on your feet with the shoes so your feet and legs are used to them.
The Amazon Jungle Marathon is a great event that promised runners an adventure. They got that and more. Their shoes showed the wear and took everything the jungle threw at them.
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Foot Care Products, Footcare, Footwear, Footwear Products
Vicky Kypta is the Medical Team Manager for the Jungle Marathon, which starts October 6 in the Amazon in Brazil. Last year she did an informal survey of the participants and the results are interesting. The race lasts seven days and goes through the jungle on pre-existing paths, trails, and tracks with natural obstacles to pass including streams and shallow rivers. This leads to feet that are constantly wet.
This is the race that I will be at in a few days.
Vicky shared the results of the questionnaire and commented it was quite interesting, although the sample group was quite small. There were about 30 participants.
Here are some of the findings:
- 77% of the respondents wore Injinji socks
- 100% of those NOT wearing Injinji sock got blisters
- 46% of those wearing Injinji sock got blisters: out of those 50% were on the balls of the foot and 50% were on the toes. Those who had blisters on their toes all wore shoes in their normal size.
Out of those with no blisters:
- 100% wore Injinji socks
- 100% wore shoes one size larger
- 75% applied some form of anti-friction compound to their feet; i.e. Body Glide, 2nd Skin or Zinc Oxide cream
- 75% pre-taped problem areas or hotspots
I find this interesting and wonder what we will find with the 78 participants next week. The Jungle Marathons are well run and the staff tells runners to train with wet feet. They have found this results in less foot problems.
The results are striking in several areas (remember this is a seven day stage race):
- All the runners who did not get blisters wore Injinji socks and shoes a full size larger than their normal shoes
- All the runners who did not wear Injinji socks got blisters
- Runners wearing their normal size shoes all got toe blisters
- The majority of blisters were on the forefoot and toes
Over the past 17 years, I have worked a lot of ultramarathons and multi-day stage races. I can honestly say that overall, feet have improved. More runners are prepared and know how to manage their feet.
When I return, I will share what we found at this year’s Amazon Jungle Marathon.
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Foot Care Products, Footwear, Sports
In my last post, I talked about four ways to reduce shear and the likelihood of blisters. To recap, they were fit, cushioning, moisture management, and socks. Today’s post will cover a fifth way by using ENGO Blister Prevention Patches.
Tamarack Habilitation Technologies is well known for providing healthcare professionals and clients with innovative, value-added orthotic-prosthetic componentry and materials. Their ShearBan product is similar to the ENGO Blister Prevention Patches reviewed in this article. ShearBan is used in the orthopaedic and prosthetic industry on prostheses at amputation stump sites to reduce the incidence of skin breakdown.
Introduced in 2004, ENGO Blister Prevention Patches have radically redefined the way hot spots, blisters and calluses are treated. As a preventative measure, ENGO patches provide peace-of-mind that blisters won’t become a painful, debilitating problem. If a blister has already formed, applying patches to footwear, corresponding to the blistered area eliminates painful irritation and further skin damage, allowing continued activity. Friction forces are reduced by more than 50% when you apply an ENGO Patch to your footwear.
The patches are made from an ultra-thin Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film and are 0.015 inches total thickness – a very slippery surface. They are very durable, lasting four to six weeks in most applications. The aggressively sticky patch peels away from the backing and is applied to dry shoes or boots. The PTFE ENGO Patch reduces the ‘stickiness’ between the shoe and sock so they can glide over one another. The foot, inside the sock, glides over the patch shear distortion and friction are reduced, and blisters can be averted, in spite of pressure.
Avid runners, hikers and sports players rely on their feet to reach performance goals; from day hikes to ultra marathons. But quality footwear and socks alone don’t eliminate the skin trauma your feet can experience from repetitive rubbing — building friction forces to levels that cause hot spots, blisters and calluses. While I use these patches in runners’ footwear at races, they can also be used in ordinary every day shoes to reduce calluses.
Similar to Tamarack’s ShearBan material, ENGO patches are applied directly to footwear and equipment, not to the skin. Outcomes of this unique application include ease of use, long-lasting and guaranteed friction relief.
ENGO Patches are made in several sizes and types:
- A large oval – 2 ¾ x 1 ¾
- A small oval – 2 x 1 ½
- A rectangle – 3 ¾ x 2 ¾
- Back of the heel patch – 3 ¾ x 1 ¾
- A cushion heel wrap – 3 ¾ x 1 ½
When I work a race I always have a bag with different sizes of ENGO patches. I have applied the ovals and rectangles and the back of the heel patches. The patches are applied to the shoes and insoles – not to your skin. This means wherever you are going to apply a patch has to be dry. My advice is to apply patches before your race when your shoes are dry. I have used them inside the shoes in the sides, in the heels, and on the insoles.
Typical problem areas in footwear are under the heel and forefoot, and at the side of the heel. An oval patch can be applied to overlap the side of the heel counter and the insole as seen is the photo. I often use a rectangle or large oval under the ball of the foot or an oval under the heel – applied directly to the insole. The patches are useful over stitching or seams in footwear that are rubbing the wearer. If necessary, a patch can be cut to shape for where it will be applied.
The patches will reduce shear and friction; provide relief from hot spot and blister pain, and can be used in any type of insole or orthotic and footwear, from sandals to running shoes, and any type of hiking or ski boot.
I like ENGO patches because they work. The patch is thin and does not alter the fit of the shoe. When properly applied to dry footwear, they stick.
Rebecca Rushton, a podiatrist in Australia, strongly recommends ENGO Patches. She discovered the patches after getting blisters herself and now represents ENGO in Australia. She has written several free reports on blister prevention available on her website, Blister Prevention.
If you are unclear about shear and blister formation, here’s a link to my article An Introduction to Shear and Blister Formation.
The Technical Stuff
JM Carlson, in a 2009 report wrote, “The measurement of friction is the ‘coefficient of friction’. The coefficient of friction (COF) is a number that represents this slipperiness or stickiness between two surfaces and is generally below 1.0. Within the shoe, the COF between the foot, socks and insole can range from 0.5 – 0.9. In contrast the COF between a sock and a polished floor is around 0.2.” Tests have shown PTFE patches to reduce the coefficient of friction (COF) in the shoe by up to 80%. The COF is in approximately 0.16, which is significantly lower than all other in-shoe materials. Importantly, the low COF is maintained even in most and wet conditions inside the shoe.
Check out GoEngo.com for more information about ENGO Blister Prevention Patches. They also offer a money-back guarantee.
Disclaimers: I support ENGO Patches and am supplied with whatever I need for the events I work. I am an affiliate of Zombierunner and make a bit of any sale made through the link above.
Back on June 17 I introduced the concept of shear with a post by podiatrist Rebecca Rushton from Australia who has studied blisters and identified shear as a major factor in blisters.
It’s best to start by refreshing our memories about what was shared on the previous article. Here’s the link in case you want to see the full post: An Introduction to Shear and Blister Formation. Otherwise, here’s a short piece from that post:
Poor blister prevention outcomes are due in no small part to the misunderstanding of the cause of this obstinate injury. The force that causes ‘friction’ blisters is not friction. And it’s not rubbing. It’s shear. But if you ask 100 people the question “what causes blisters”, nobody would answer “shear”. Shear is the sliding of layers across one another – internal layers that are structurally connected. Those connections can break and when fluid fills that cavity, you have a blister! What Does Shear Look Like? Try this … Step 1: Place the tip of your right index finger on the back of your left hand. Step 2: Wobble it back and forth but keep it stuck to the same bit of skin. Notice how your skin stretches? This is shear and this is what causes blisters. Shear might look like rubbing but it’s not. Notice how your finger tip has not moved relative to the skin of the back of your hand? But your hand skin has moved relative to the underlying bone. This is shear. Your skin doesn’t need anything to rub over it for blisters to form. It just needs shear (this stretching of the internal tissue layers) to be excessive and repetitive.
Managing shear is key to managing blisters. Let’s look at several ways to reduce shear.
The first way is to make sure your footwear fits. Many people buy shoes that seem comfortable in the store but don’t make sure they feel ok by wearing them around the house for a few days. Make sure they have enough room in the toe box both in height and length. Make sure there is not undue pressure on soft tissues over any bony spots (sides of the forefoot, ball of the foot, sides and back of the heel, over the instep, etc.). Make sure they are not too loose, allowing too much movement leading to skin abrasions, hot spots, and then blisters.
Using a cushioning product is a second way to reduce shear. This might be a gel pad under the ball of the foot or under the heel bone, or a replacement insole meant to pad and cushion.
A third method is to manage skin moisture. This can include skin-drying strategies and skin lubrication. Studies have shown that you can reduce the incidence of blisters by keeping the skin either very dry or very wet. Drying the skin can be done with powder, benzoin, alcohol wipes, and antiperspirants. Lubricants can include SportSlick, BodyGlide, BlisterShield, and other popular products. Zinc oxide is also effective at controlling moisture. The method of having runners train with wet feet has been successfully used by Shirley Thompson and Vicky Kypta of the Jungle Marathon Amazon. They have found that the feet of their race participants have been better with this suggestion given to runners before the race.
The fourth method of controlling shear is with socks. This may include double layer socks or wearing two pairs of socks – a thin liner and usually, a thicker second sock. This allows movement between the two sock layers. Injinji toe socks are great for those with toe blister problems.
Next time, we’ll talk about a fifth way to reduce shear – Engo Blister Prevention Patches.
In the mean time, check out ZombieRunner for many products that can help with cushioning, skin-drying and lubricants, and socks.
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Footwear, Health, Sports, toenails
Which is more important, blister prevention or blister treatment?
For more than 17 years, I’ve taught foot care techniques to anyone who will listen. I have taught classes at running stores, REI stores, events, and more. In addition, I have worked medical at many races, helping provide foot care to participants. These races have been in Death Valley, Chile, Costa Rica, BC Canada, Colorado and Washington, and many in California. This year I will be at Western States 100, Badwater, the Gold Rush Adventure Race, the Jungle Marathon in the Amazon, and hopefully at races in Colorado and Namibia.
I have never counted the feet I have worked on but I would put the number well over 3000. I remember one race in Colorado in 2010 when I saw the same lady 10 times. It was a six-day stage race and she’d come in every evening and morning! I’d patch her feet in the evening and she’d take it off when she went to bed in her tent. She had foot wear issues that gave her blisters on top of blisters. She was never into prevention mode – only treatments.
In this picture, taken from the cover of the 5th edition of Fixing Your Feet, we see treatment taking place. I love the picture. I even know whose foot it is. What I can’t tell you is what he did for prevention. I wish I knew.
My question in this blog post is what should we spend more time on, blister prevention or blister treatment?
Prevention can take many forms: good choices in footwear, the right socks, lubricants and powders, toenail care, skin care, taping, Engo patches, correct lacing, the right insoles, and training and conditioning.
Treatments likewise offers many options: blister draining, many different types of patches, taping, ointments and salves, a multitude of tapes, wraps and straps, silicone pads, Engo patches, toe caps, and lubricants and powders.
So here are a few questions:
- Does prevention last only until the race starts?
- What are your best prevention options?
- How much do you count on aid station personnel to manage treatments?
- Do you know how to treat your feet?
- Do you carry materials to treat your feet?
- What are your best treatment options?
- How well do you understand blister formation and prevention?
For 17 years, athletes have had Fixing Your Feet as a resource to learn important information about foot care. As I patch feet at races, I try to educate the athletes about what I am doing and why, and what could have helped in their feet. If crews come to me for advice, I try to help them too. I have watched athletes and crews work on feet with materials and using techniques I have long preached.
In general, foot care has advanced over the years. Shoes, socks and insoles have become light years better. Lubricants, powders, blister patches, and our tools are better. People interested in foot care are trying new blister patching techniques.
All this is good because every day there are new athletes coming into running, adventure racing, hiking and thru-hiking, walking, and other feet stressing sports. Let’s make sure they understand the importance of prevention before treatment.