Blister Repair – Your Way or Their Way?

March 7, 2015 by · 1 Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Health, Sports 

One of my goals is to educate athletes about good foot care techniques. You may recall blog posts where I stress the importance of knowing how to do foot care and importantly, to know what’s best for your feet.

I recently received an email from Rob, asking for some advice. Here’s Rob’s email:

“I have been running a modest 30 miles a week for a few years. Last weekend we attended a tennis camp and during the first night of drills during ball pick up (not during a drill or competitive play) another player smacked a ball in to the arch of my foot from a shot distance away causing severe pain. I played through the pain and the next morning I asked the trainer to tape up my bruised arch, which she did. I played all day and at the end of the day there was a blister in the center of my foot between the taped and un-taped area.

“I went back to the trainer in the morning and she created a donut shaped pad about a 1/4-inch thick and taped it to my foot. I took out my shoe arch supports and played for another 1/2 day in a bit of pain. When I took off the shoe, sock, and bandage and pad I found that the blister had filled with liquid to the size of the donut hole – now a huge blister about the size of a silver dollar and 1/4-inch thick. The camp staff took pictures of the biggest tennis-related blister they had seen.

“I went back to the trainer at the college and she drained about half of the liquid out of the blister and we decided I was done playing tennis for the rest of the camp. I’m not sure going to the trainer really helped and I probably should have had your book along as reference and taped myself up. Now I am back home and have a huge blister on the bottom of my foot.”

This is a case where the trainer patched Rob’s blister the best way she knew how. It was an “old-school” patch job. A piece of moleskin cut in a donut shape with a hole in the middle for the blister. There may have been Vaseline on the center, and then tape or gauze over the top.

The problem with this old-school method is that it adds bulk to the foot – that can easily alter the person’s gait. This gait change can lead to further problems. At the same time, the patch can cause irritation, expanding the original blister or leading to new blisters.

Rob’s experience shows there is a long ways to go to get everyone up to speed about good blister care. I’d bet that if Rob had been prepared, he could have done a better job then the trained did. It’s hard to go everywhere with a blister patch kit in hand, but here’s my recommendation. Make up several simple kits and put them in Zip-Lock bags and stash one in your car and another in your gear bag. Fill the kits with your choices of blister tapes and patches. Then of course, make sure you know the best way to patch any blisters that may develop.

This post is from July 2102, but is important for athletes to understand.

Typical Heel Blister Problems

January 12, 2015 by · 4 Comments
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Footwear, Footwear Products 

Heel blisters are quite common – although they shouldn’t be.

Feet in the Jungle Marathon

Heels in the Jungle Marathon

Today’s post shows one participant’s feet at the 2014 Amazon Jungle Marathon.

If you look closely at this picture, you’ll see two heel blisters, both on the outside of the runner’s feet. The right foot blister is large but is not blood-filled. The blister on the left heel, however, is very large and filled with a large amount of blood.

It’s easy to think these are normal blisters – but their size makes they abnormal.

In my experience, heel blisters are caused by the constant shear when either 1) the heel is moving up and down inside the shoes’ heel, or 2) by the constant movement at the place where the shoe’s insole touches the inside of the shoe. Over the years, the majority of heel blisters have been the latter. One of the characteristics of this “insole/shoe junction” blister is that they often are flat across the bottom. The blister starts at the point where the insole’s edge at the side of the heel touches the inside of the shoe. That’s what makes the flat line at the bottom. Then the blister forms upward as the fluid forms and it grows. Given enough time and movement, you’ll get blood inside.


These are relatively simple to patch. The skin must be cleaned with alcohol wipes, and then the blister can be lanced and drained. Depending on the size of the blister, you’ll need to apply some type of blister patch. The bottom line is that you need to have something over the blister to protect the skin and prevent the top layer of skin from tearing off. For these, I would use strips of kinesiology tape (my preference is either StrengthTape or RockTape H2O) with antibiotic ointment over the blister to keep the tape from sticking to the skin. The larger the blister, the harder these are to patch but it can be done.


You are better off to prevent these blisters in the first place.

Start with the fit. Make sure your shoes hold your heels in place with just a little movement.

Check your shoes and insoles for rough and/or thick edges at the inside and outside of each heel. Side blisters are much more common than the back of the heel. If the insole has a large thick edge, replace them. If the shoe’s fabric is worn into a hole, you are due for new shoes. Under the fabric is generally a plastic edge of the shoe’s heel counter – the plastic that curves around the heel from side to side.

Engo Blister Prevention Patches are perfect for to help prevent these types of blisters. These patches are super slick. Either the small or large oval can be applied to the inside of the shoe and cover the offending edge of the insole/shoe junction. Clean the inside of the shoe and insole first. I work the patch with my fingers to form a curve to fit with area I need to cover. Then remove the backing and apply the center of the patch first and then push the top and bottom of the patch into place. Rub it a bit to assure adherence.

A Survey About Feet From The 2012 Amazon Jungle Marathon

Vicky Kypta is the Medical Team Manager for the Jungle Marathon, which starts October 6 in the Amazon in Brazil. Last year she did an informal survey of the participants and the results are interesting. The race lasts seven days and goes through the jungle on pre-existing paths, trails, and tracks with natural obstacles to pass including streams and shallow rivers. This leads to feet that are constantly wet.

Jungle Marathon foot care

Jungle Marathon foot care

This is the race that I will be at in a few days.

Vicky shared the results of the questionnaire and commented it was quite interesting, although the sample group was quite small. There were about 30 participants.

Here are some of the findings:

  • 77% of the respondents wore Injinji socks
  • 100% of those NOT wearing Injinji sock got blisters
  • 46% of those wearing Injinji sock got blisters: out of those 50% were on the balls of the foot and 50% were on the toes. Those who had blisters on their toes all wore shoes in their normal size.

Out of those with no blisters:

  • 100% wore Injinji socks
  • 100% wore shoes one size larger
  • 75% applied some form of anti-friction compound to their feet; i.e. Body Glide, 2nd Skin or Zinc Oxide cream
  • 75% pre-taped problem areas or hotspots

I find this interesting and wonder what we will find with the 78 participants next week. The Jungle Marathons are well run and the staff tells runners to train with wet feet. They have found this results in less foot problems.

The results are striking in several areas (remember this is a seven day stage race):

  1. All the runners who did not get blisters wore Injinji socks and shoes a full size larger than their normal shoes
  2. All the runners who did not wear Injinji socks got blisters
  3. Runners wearing their normal size shoes all got toe blisters
  4. The majority of blisters were on the forefoot and toes

Over the past 17 years, I have worked a lot of ultramarathons and multi-day stage races. I can honestly say that overall, feet have improved. More runners are prepared and know how to manage their feet.

When I return, I will share what we found at this year’s Amazon Jungle Marathon.

Moisture on Your Feet – Moist, Very Wet or Very Dry

September 22, 2013 by · 1 Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Health, Sports, Travel 

Back in May I posted an article about Training With Wet Feet. My being invited to work on the medical team at the Jungle Marathons in Vietnam and the Amazon prompted the article. While the Vietnam race had to be cancelled, the Amazon race is happening – in a bit over two weeks.

As I wrote in that article, it was long felt the best way to manage your feet was to keep them as dry as possible. This was more and more evident as Denise Jones and I worked the Badwater Ultramarathon in the heat of Death Valley each July. Runners who kept their feet dry typically finished better than those who had wet feet. This was also based on our experiences at Western States and other events.

Then came the invite to help at the Jungle Marathons.

The Jungle Marathons are run by Race Director Shirley Thompson and the Medical Team Manager is Vicky Kypta. They found their runners had a better race when they trained with wet feet. As part of their instructions to their race participants, they stress the importance of training with wet feet.

The reason for this is the Jungle Marathons are wet. Very wet is typical in the jungle. Whether through rivers or streams, the Amazon is full of water.

When I am helping runners at the race in early October, I will be closely monitoring the condition of their feet. I expect runners will use lubricants and other products to control the moisture, or powder, socks, well-draining shoes, and maybe a few home-grown tricks.

Over the past few months, I have shared some of the findings by Rebecca Rushton, a podiatrist from Australia. In her Blister Prevention Report, she talks about managing moisture control. She supports her report with studies from medical and other professional journals. What she found through the studies is that you could reduce the incidence of blisters by keeping the skin either very dry or very wet.

Rebecca writes that, “… the very high or very low skin moisture strategies aim to reduce the coefficient of friction value between the sock and the skin to below blister-causing levels.”

The Coefficient of Friction

The coefficient of friction (COF) is the number that represents the slipperiness or stickiness between two surfaces. According to studies, this number is generally below 1.0. Inside the shoe, the COF between the foot’s skin, and the sock and insole can range from 0.5 and 0.9. Compare this to the COF between a sock and a polished floor – about 0.2.

In Rushton’s report, she illustrates this with an example of a runner whose feet sweat a lot. His socks become damp, creating a moist condition. The COF in this case might be 0.7. By moving away from a moist condition to either very dry or very wet, the runner might reduce the COF to 0.5. If the runner’s blister-causing threshold is 0.6, getting to 0.5 will reduce his chances of blistering. Reducing the COF between your skin and socks/insole combination is important to having healthy feet.

Moist Skin

Moist skin produces higher friction than very dry or very wet skin. Whether skin is dry and becomes moist through sweat or through a water moisture source, or is very wet and becomes moist through heat or simply drying out, when it hits this middle stage, it becomes more susceptible to blistering.

Very Dry Skin

Drying the skin can be done with powders, antiperspirants or other drying agents, used by themselves or in conjunction with moisture control socks. Keeping the skin very dry is tough because our feet sweat naturally. Humid or hot conditions can also make it hard to keep the skin dry. Dumping water over your head to cool yourself can result in water running down your legs into your shoes – defeating your efforts to keep your feet dry. Airing your feet with shoes and socks off can help. If you use powders, make sure it is high quality and does not cake, which can be an irritant. When counting on any of these methods to keep your skin dry, you mush also have shoes that allow moisture to escape. That may include shoes with mesh uppers and drain holes in the arches and heels.

Very Wet Skin

Increasing skin moisture leads to very wet, lubricated skin that reduces the skin’s coefficient of friction. This can be through the use of a lubricant and or by simply having wet feet. The thing to remember is that over time, 1-3 hours, friction will increase as the lubricant is absorbed into the socks – so ongoing application is required.

Amazon Wet Foot

Amazon Wet Foot

Remember too what happens to your skin when you spend too much time in the water. It becomes weaker and less able to resist trauma on wrinkly skin. In extreme cases, the skin can fold over on itself and split. Severe maceration can be painful and athletes say it feel like a giant blister on the bottom of their feet.

In the Amazon Jungle Marathon, the trick will be to dry the feet at the end of each day’s stage. Because the feet will be wet during much of each day’s stage, the runners will have to find the balance between very dry and very wet, avoiding moist as much as possible.

Here’s some advice from my previous post about training with wet feet.

As said earlier, stop and deal with any hot spots as soon as you feel them. Check for folds in your socks, friction from dirt or sand, pressure inside your shoes – and get rid of these irritants. Lube the area or apply a piece of tape or blister prevention patch to help. This may seem like common sense, but many people ignore this simple step.

At the end of each day’s stage, remove your wet shoes and socks, dry your feet and air them as much as possible. If your feet have tape on them, remove the tape to dry the skin underneath. Wear sandals or Crocs around camp to keep your feet away from the wet ground and dirt and sand. Walking around barefoot will often aggravate wet, cold, and soft macerated skin. Later in the day or the next morning, re-tape your feet and patch any blisters.

Rest assured that I will write about how everyone’s feet held up in the wet Amazon jungle.

Credit is due to Rebecca Rushton for her Blister Prevention Report. Her website is Blister Prevention. Check out her website and sign up for her newsletter and free reports.

Here is the link to the Jungle Marathon Amazon.

If you want to read more, check out this article I did in November 2012 about Stuart Crispin who completed the race in Vibram FiveFingers.

ENGO Blister Prevention Patches

September 8, 2013 by · Leave a Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Foot Care Products, Footwear, Sports 

In my last post, I talked about four ways to reduce shear and the likelihood of blisters. To recap, they were fit, cushioning, moisture management, and socks. Today’s post will cover a fifth way by using ENGO Blister Prevention Patches.

Tamarack Habilitation Technologies is well known for providing healthcare professionals and clients with innovative, value-added orthotic-prosthetic componentry and materials. Their ShearBan product is similar to the ENGO Blister Prevention Patches reviewed in this article. ShearBan is used in the orthopaedic and prosthetic industry on prostheses at amputation stump sites to reduce the incidence of skin breakdown.

ENGO in Footwear

ENGO in Footwear

Introduced in 2004, ENGO Blister Prevention Patches have radically redefined the way hot spots, blisters and calluses are treated. As a preventative measure, ENGO patches provide peace-of-mind that blisters won’t become a painful, debilitating problem. If a blister has already formed, applying patches to footwear, corresponding to the blistered area eliminates painful irritation and further skin damage, allowing continued activity. Friction forces are reduced by more than 50% when you apply an ENGO Patch to your footwear.

ENGO Applied

ENGO Applied

The patches are made from an ultra-thin Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film and are 0.015 inches total thickness – a very slippery surface. They are very durable, lasting four to six weeks in most applications. The aggressively sticky patch peels away from the backing and is applied to dry shoes or boots. The PTFE ENGO Patch reduces the ‘stickiness’ between the shoe and sock so they can glide over one another. The foot, inside the sock, glides over the patch shear distortion and friction are reduced, and blisters can be averted, in spite of pressure.

Avid runners, hikers and sports players rely on their feet to reach performance goals; from day hikes to ultra marathons. But quality footwear and socks alone don’t eliminate the skin trauma your feet can experience from repetitive rubbing — building friction forces to levels that cause hot spots, blisters and calluses. While I use these patches in runners’ footwear at races, they can also be used in ordinary every day shoes to reduce calluses.

Similar to Tamarack’s ShearBan material, ENGO patches are applied directly to footwear and equipment, not to the skin. Outcomes of this unique application include ease of use, long-lasting and guaranteed friction relief.

ENGO Patch in Shoe

ENGO Patch in Shoe

ENGO Patches are made in several sizes and types:

  • A large oval – 2 ¾ x 1 ¾
  • A small oval – 2 x 1 ½
  • A rectangle – 3 ¾ x 2 ¾
  • Back of the heel patch – 3 ¾ x 1 ¾
  • A cushion heel wrap – 3 ¾ x 1 ½

When I work a race I always have a bag with different sizes of ENGO patches. I have applied the ovals and rectangles and the back of the heel patches. The patches are applied to the shoes and insoles – not to your skin. This means wherever you are going to apply a patch has to be dry. My advice is to apply patches before your race when your shoes are dry. I have used them inside the shoes in the sides, in the heels, and on the insoles.

ENGO in a Shoe's Heel

ENGO in a Shoe’s Heel

Typical problem areas in footwear are under the heel and forefoot, and at the side of the heel. An oval patch can be applied to overlap the side of the heel counter and the insole as seen is the photo. I often use a rectangle or large oval under the ball of the foot or an oval under the heel – applied directly to the insole. The patches are useful over stitching or seams in footwear that are rubbing the wearer. If necessary, a patch can be cut to shape for where it will be applied.

The patches will reduce shear and friction; provide relief from hot spot and blister pain, and can be used in any type of insole or orthotic and footwear, from sandals to running shoes, and any type of hiking or ski boot.

I like ENGO patches because they work. The patch is thin and does not alter the fit of the shoe. When properly applied to dry footwear, they stick.

Rebecca Rushton, a podiatrist in Australia, strongly recommends ENGO Patches. She discovered the patches after getting blisters herself and now represents ENGO in Australia. She has written several free reports on blister prevention available on her website, Blister Prevention.

If you are unclear about shear and blister formation, here’s a link to my article An Introduction to Shear and Blister Formation.

The Technical Stuff

JM Carlson, in a 2009 report wrote, “The measurement of friction is the ‘coefficient of friction’. The coefficient of friction (COF) is a number that represents this slipperiness or stickiness between two surfaces and is generally below 1.0. Within the shoe, the COF between the foot, socks and insole can range from 0.5 – 0.9. In contrast the COF between a sock and a polished floor is around 0.2.” Tests have shown PTFE patches to reduce the coefficient of friction (COF) in the shoe by up to 80%. The COF is in approximately 0.16, which is significantly lower than all other in-shoe materials. Importantly, the low COF is maintained even in most and wet conditions inside the shoe.

Check out for more information about ENGO Blister Prevention Patches. They also offer a money-back guarantee.

ENGO Patches can be purchased at the ENGO website,, and Rebecca’s Blister Prevention website.

Disclaimers: I support ENGO Patches and am supplied with whatever I need for the events I work. I am an affiliate of Zombierunner and make a bit of any sale made through the link above.

More on Shear and Blister Treatments

August 26, 2013 by · Leave a Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Footwear 

Back on June 17 I introduced the concept of shear with a post by podiatrist Rebecca Rushton from Australia who has studied blisters and identified shear as a major factor in blisters.

It’s best to start by refreshing our memories about what was shared on the previous article. Here’s the link in case you want to see the full post: An Introduction to Shear and Blister Formation. Otherwise, here’s a short piece from that post:

Poor blister prevention outcomes are due in no small part to the misunderstanding of the cause of this obstinate injury. The force that causes ‘friction’ blisters is not friction. And it’s not rubbing. It’s shear. But if you ask 100 people the question “what causes blisters”, nobody would answer “shear”. Shear is the sliding of layers across one another – internal layers that are structurally connected. Those connections can break and when fluid fills that cavity, you have a blister! What Does Shear Look Like?  Try this … Step 1: Place the tip of your right index finger on the back of your left hand. Step 2: Wobble it back and forth but keep it stuck to the same bit of skin. Notice how your skin stretches? This is shear and this is what causes blisters. Shear might look like rubbing but it’s not. Notice how your finger tip has not moved relative to the skin of the back of your hand? But your hand skin has moved relative to the underlying bone. This is shear. Your skin doesn’t need anything to rub over it for blisters to form. It just needs shear (this stretching of the internal tissue layers) to be excessive and repetitive.

That’s shear.

Managing shear is key to managing blisters. Let’s look at several ways to reduce shear.

The first way is to make sure your footwear fits. Many people buy shoes that seem comfortable in the store but don’t make sure they feel ok by wearing them around the house for a few days. Make sure they have enough room in the toe box both in height and length. Make sure there is not undue pressure on soft tissues over any bony spots (sides of the forefoot, ball of the foot, sides and back of the heel, over the instep, etc.). Make sure they are not too loose, allowing too much movement leading to skin abrasions, hot spots, and then blisters.

Using a cushioning product is a second way to reduce shear. This might be a gel pad under the ball of the foot or under the heel bone, or a replacement insole meant to pad and cushion.

Applying power during an adventure race

Applying power during an adventure race

A third method is to manage skin moisture. This can include skin-drying strategies and skin lubrication. Studies have shown that you can reduce the incidence of blisters by keeping the skin either very dry or very wet. Drying the skin can be done with powder, benzoin, alcohol wipes, and antiperspirants. Lubricants can include SportSlick, BodyGlide, BlisterShield, and other popular products. Zinc oxide is also effective at controlling moisture. The method of having runners train with wet feet has been successfully used by Shirley Thompson and Vicky Kypta of the Jungle Marathon Amazon. They have found that the feet of their race participants have been better with this suggestion given to runners before the race.

The fourth method of controlling shear is with socks. This may include double layer socks or wearing two pairs of socks – a thin liner and usually, a thicker second sock. This allows movement between the two sock layers. Injinji toe socks are great for those with toe blister problems.

Next time, we’ll talk about  a fifth way to reduce shear – Engo Blister Prevention Patches.

In the mean time, check out ZombieRunner for many products that can help with cushioning, skin-drying and lubricants, and socks.

Feet Tell a Story

August 15, 2013 by · Leave a Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, toenails 

I have a large file of feet pictures on my computer. Pictures of toes, heels, balls of the feet, and arches. Pictures of blisters of all shapes and sizes. In addition, I see all kinds of feet when I work events. Over the years, I have worked races ranging from short distances to ultramarathons, to multi-day stage races.

I am probably one of a limited number of people in the world who gets excited at photos of bad feet. I like them because they tell stories.

The first full multi-day event I worked was Racing the Planet’s Atacama Desert six-day stage in the high desert of Chile in 2004. The stressors of being on your feet for long distances day-after-day for six to seven days often bring out the worst in feet.

A lady in that race wanted us to remove her toenails at the end of day two. Another runner had the worst case of trench foot I have ever seen. That was nine years ago and my techniques have changed for the better, but the feet remain the same – bad!

I believe that feet tell a story.

Hurting Toes

Hurting Toes

The photo here is from the Racing the Planet Iceland. I don’t know the owner of the feet. I don’t know the level of training and experience the person had prior to this race. I also don’t know what experience this person had with foot care planning before a race and during the race.

Here are my observations about the story behind these feet.

  • Almost every toe has something going on.
  • The photo was posted online for stage five, meaning the runner had to tolerate these toes for four plus days.
  • These blisters don’t typically happen in one day. My guess is they started on day one, progressed to blisters on day two and then got worse.
  • My bet is the shoes’ toebox was too short in length and/or too low in height.
  • The runner may have worn two pairs of socks, which could have made the fit too tight.
  • The toenails don’t look too long but it’s hard to see if they have any rough edges or are thick, both of which can lead to toe blisters.
  • These toes scream pain – especially if they are encased inside shoes.
  • It’s possible the toes received some degree of care, but it is hard to tell from their condition.
  • Four of the toes have major trauma.
  • We cannot see what is going on under the toes, but from the outside edges of the big toes, you can see blistered skin of the left one and maceration on the right one.
  • The left big toe has blood showing in the blister on the outside edge.

That’s a lot of information pulled from a photo. I wish I knew the toes’ owner. It would be nice to learn more about his/her race. What shoes and socks they wore. How the trauma to the toes progressed day-to-day. What care they received. Whether they finished the race.

My guess is that with proper care, much of this could have been prevented. That care could have included lubricants, moisture control skin protect, tape, modified shoes, and nail care.

What story do your feet tell?

Here’s the link to the Racing the Planet’s Iceland race. Racing the Planet does four desert races every year called The 4 Deserts: the Gobi in China, the Atacama in Chile, the Sahara in Egypt, and Antarctic. Every year they add a new location for that year. Past sites have included Australia, Nepal, Namibia, Vietnam, and 2014 will be in Madagascar. You can check them out at Racing the Planet.

Maceration at Western States

July 7, 2013 by · 1 Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Health, Sports 

Last Saturday and Sunday I worked medical at the Western States 100 Mile Endurance Run. I spent Saturday at the Michigan Bluff aid station at mile 55. With the help of Tonya Olson, we patched a bunch of feet. Some had blisters, one needed shoe modification, one had severe heel blisters that had split, and lots of maceration. We saw more maceration than in many past years.

After we closed our aid station at 9:45 pm, I went to Foresthill and talked to George Miller, who was doing foot care there. He had a pretty calm afternoon with nothing unusual.

I found a nice parking space near the finish line at the Auburn High School and spent an uncomfortable few hours trying to get some needed sleep. About 5 am, I headed over to the podiatrity tent and set up my gear. By then, 24 hours into the race, even with about 100 runners in, the tent was quiet.

Around 7 am, things started to pick up. As runners finished, there was a large washtub for them to wash off the dirt. Then they could move to one of the kiddy pools with cold water and ice to soak their feet. Only after that did we see them. As they moved from place to place, Dave, assigned to work finish line podiatrity, and Tonya and I (from Michigan Bluff) looked over their feet and answered any questions. This went on until well after the race ended at 11 am.

This year’s Western States was hot. I’d guess hotter than normal. To my knowledge, there wasn’t that much water on the course. However we saw a large number of runners with severe maceration.



Here’s a photo of one runner’s foot. This was repeated over and over as we evaluated runners at the finish. Most were convinced that they had large blisters that we needed to lance. In fact, with one or two exceptions, there were no blisters. Just wet, macerated feet with lots of skin folds, creases, and waterlogged skin.

We told the runners that time would heal their feet and to go home or back to their hotel and start a regiment of Epson Salt soaks. The salts help to dry the skin. Powders and airing the feet help too.

Some of the runners had blister with blood inside – some were tinged with pink, indicating blood traces. The decision was made not to lance these blood blisters. When runners have dirty feet and have not showered, and will be walking around in dirty shoes or sandals for a few hours during the awards ceremony, we didn’t want to increase the possibility of infection. In these cases, we gave them the same instruction to do Epson Salt soaks and watch for signs of infection.

A good question is why there was so much maceration. In the heat of the course, often time runners take advantage of every opportunity to keep cool. This includes going through streams, using water soaked sponges at aid stations, pouring water over their heads, and whatever else they can think of. Sometimes well-meaning crew and volunteers squeezed soaked sponges over the heads of runners. The problem is that the water runs down the legs and into the shoes. This helps maceration.

I have seen some runners coat their feet with zinc oxide or SportSlick to help hold moisture at bay. Changing shoes and socks can help, and can be important when maceration has started. Drying the feet and using powder in fresh socks is also important.

Here are four blog posts about maceration and wet feet. Read them to know more about this condition and gain insights about how to manage your feet when wet.

Maceration  – June 23, 2011

Training for Blisters in Wet Conditions – September 15, 2012

Training With Wet Feet – May 5, 2013

A New Kind of Foot Coating – September 25, 2011

Foot Problems at Western States

June 25, 2013 by · Leave a Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Health, Sports 

This weekend close to 400 runners will start at Squaw Valley and make the trek over the Sierras towards Auburn – 100 miles away. It’s the Western States 100 Mile Endurance Race. I love the race, having completed it three times in the late 80’s. It’s tough and throws a lot at the runners. Cold, heat, extreme heat, streams running down the trail, rocks, dust and grit, water crossings, long ups and long down through numerous canyons – and for many runners, a second sunrise with renewed heat.

Toe Blister

Toe Blister

I will again be working at the Michigan Bluff aid station doing foot care. Later, I will be at the finish line taking care of feet as people finish. Having worked this race for years, I have a good idea of what foot problems to expect. Here’s what I commonly see and a few tips.

First, here are common problems:

  • Toe blisters. Under the toenail, on the tips of toes, between toes, and under toes.
  • Heel blisters. Either at the rear of the heel or at the sides.
  • Ball of the foot blisters. Either in a certain area or across the whole foot.
  • Side of the foot blisters.
  • Stubbed toes. From hitting rocks or roots.
  • Sprained ankles.
  • Sore feet.

Here are some tips:

  • Cut toenails short and them file them smooth. No rough edges to catch on socks or hit the toebox of your shoes.
  • Reduce your calluses as much as possible. This close to the race, don’t file too much off. Aim to get reduce the thickest rough patches.
  • Use Engo Blister Prevention Patches in problem areas – sides of the heels and ball of the foot. They will greatly reduce friction and shear.
  • Pretape any problem areas.
  • Check your insoles for thick edges at the sides of the heel – always a problem area. Thin these down or change insoles. Most side of the heel blisters are caused by these edges.
  • Don’t use Vaseline as a lubricant. Stick to SportSlick, BodyGlide, or a similar lube.
  • Change socks frequently and clean your feet. Today’s trails shoes often have mesh uppers, which allow sand, dirt, and trail dust inside the shoe, on and into your socks, and on your feet.
  • Know how to manage your feet and patch blisters on your own – or your crew should have these skills. You can’t count on aid station people knowing what you need or want or doing it on your time schedule. There may be other runners in front of you or they may be out of supplies.
  • If you feel something inside your shoe, stop and clean it out. Even a small rock can cause problems.
  • Wear gaiters to keep rocks and trail grit and dust out of the top of your shoes.
  • Build your own quality foot care kit. Stock it with what you need and learn to use everything.

Maybe I’ll see you at Michigan Bluff. I hope it’s just to say Hi as you run through.

Have a great race.

Blister Treatment or Prevention?

June 3, 2013 by · 6 Comments
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Footwear, Health, Sports, toenails 

Which is more important, blister prevention or blister treatment?

For more than 17 years, I’ve taught foot care techniques to anyone who will listen. I have taught classes at running stores, REI stores, events, and more. In addition, I have worked medical at many races, helping provide foot care to participants. These races have been in Death Valley, Chile, Costa Rica, BC Canada, Colorado and Washington, and many in California. This year I will be at Western States 100, Badwater, the Gold Rush Adventure Race, the Jungle Marathon in the Amazon, and hopefully at races in Colorado and Namibia.

I have never counted the feet I have worked on but I would put the number well over 3000. I remember one race in Colorado in 2010 when I saw the same lady 10 times. It was a six-day stage race and she’d come in every evening and morning! I’d patch her feet in the evening and she’d take it off when she went to bed in her tent. She had foot wear issues that gave her blisters on top of blisters. She was never into prevention mode – only treatments.

In this picture, taken from the cover of the 5th edition of Fixing Your Feet, we see treatment taking place. I love the picture. I even know whose foot it is. What I can’t tell you is what he did for prevention. I wish I knew.

FYF Cover Image

FYF Cover Image

My question in this blog post is what should we spend more time on, blister prevention or blister treatment?

Prevention can take many forms: good choices in footwear, the right socks, lubricants and powders, toenail care, skin care, taping, Engo patches, correct lacing, the right insoles, and training and conditioning.

Treatments likewise offers many options: blister draining, many different types of patches, taping, ointments and salves, a multitude of tapes, wraps and straps, silicone pads, Engo patches, toe caps, and lubricants and powders.

So here are a few questions:

  • Does prevention last only until the race starts?
  • What are your best prevention options?
  • How much do you count on aid station personnel to manage treatments?
  • Do you know how to treat your feet?
  • Do you carry materials to treat your feet?
  • What are your best treatment options?
  • How well do you understand blister formation and prevention?

For 17 years, athletes have had Fixing Your Feet as a resource to learn important information about foot care. As I patch feet at races, I try to educate the athletes about what I am doing and why, and what could have helped in their feet. If crews come to me for advice, I try to help them too. I have watched athletes and crews work on feet with materials and using techniques I have long preached.

In general, foot care has advanced over the years. Shoes, socks and insoles have become light years better. Lubricants, powders, blister patches, and our tools are better. People interested in foot care are trying new blister patching techniques.

All this is good because every day there are new athletes coming into running, adventure racing, hiking and thru-hiking, walking, and other feet stressing sports. Let’s make sure they understand the importance of prevention before treatment.

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