Toenail Blisters – 7 Causes

August 18, 2014 by · Leave a Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Footcare, Health 
BlisterPrevention's website

BlisterPrevention’s website

Today’s blog post is a little bit by me and a lot by Rebecca Rushton. Rebecca is a friend and podiatrist from Australia. I admire her work regarding blister formation and prevention. I follow her website and whatever she writes.

Having worked many events over the past years, I have seen hundreds of toe blisters. These may be at the tip of your toes, between your toes, or under your toes. They are very common, especially in ultras, adventure racing, and multi-day stage races. Understanding the causes of toe blisters, and ways to prevent them is important, not just for you but for your crew too.

Rebecca’s recent blog post details seven likely causes of toenail blisters. Here’s the link to Toenail Blisters.

  1. Shoes too small
  2. Shoes too big
  3. Nail shapes and deformities
  4. “Cocked-up” big toe
  5. Clawed toes
  6. Downhill terrain
  7. Long, thick or rough toenails

Make sure you sign up for Rebecca’s emails and you’ll get a free copy of her premium resource The Advanced Guide to Blister Prevention. The sign-up box is in the upper right corner of her web page. While you’re on her website, be sure to check out the rest of her content.

Feet Tell a Story

August 15, 2013 by · Leave a Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, toenails 

I have a large file of feet pictures on my computer. Pictures of toes, heels, balls of the feet, and arches. Pictures of blisters of all shapes and sizes. In addition, I see all kinds of feet when I work events. Over the years, I have worked races ranging from short distances to ultramarathons, to multi-day stage races.

I am probably one of a limited number of people in the world who gets excited at photos of bad feet. I like them because they tell stories.

The first full multi-day event I worked was Racing the Planet’s Atacama Desert six-day stage in the high desert of Chile in 2004. The stressors of being on your feet for long distances day-after-day for six to seven days often bring out the worst in feet.

A lady in that race wanted us to remove her toenails at the end of day two. Another runner had the worst case of trench foot I have ever seen. That was nine years ago and my techniques have changed for the better, but the feet remain the same – bad!

I believe that feet tell a story.

Hurting Toes

Hurting Toes

The photo here is from the Racing the Planet Iceland. I don’t know the owner of the feet. I don’t know the level of training and experience the person had prior to this race. I also don’t know what experience this person had with foot care planning before a race and during the race.

Here are my observations about the story behind these feet.

  • Almost every toe has something going on.
  • The photo was posted online for stage five, meaning the runner had to tolerate these toes for four plus days.
  • These blisters don’t typically happen in one day. My guess is they started on day one, progressed to blisters on day two and then got worse.
  • My bet is the shoes’ toebox was too short in length and/or too low in height.
  • The runner may have worn two pairs of socks, which could have made the fit too tight.
  • The toenails don’t look too long but it’s hard to see if they have any rough edges or are thick, both of which can lead to toe blisters.
  • These toes scream pain – especially if they are encased inside shoes.
  • It’s possible the toes received some degree of care, but it is hard to tell from their condition.
  • Four of the toes have major trauma.
  • We cannot see what is going on under the toes, but from the outside edges of the big toes, you can see blistered skin of the left one and maceration on the right one.
  • The left big toe has blood showing in the blister on the outside edge.

That’s a lot of information pulled from a photo. I wish I knew the toes’ owner. It would be nice to learn more about his/her race. What shoes and socks they wore. How the trauma to the toes progressed day-to-day. What care they received. Whether they finished the race.

My guess is that with proper care, much of this could have been prevented. That care could have included lubricants, moisture control skin protect, tape, modified shoes, and nail care.

What story do your feet tell?

Here’s the link to the Racing the Planet’s Iceland race. Racing the Planet does four desert races every year called The 4 Deserts: the Gobi in China, the Atacama in Chile, the Sahara in Egypt, and Antarctic. Every year they add a new location for that year. Past sites have included Australia, Nepal, Namibia, Vietnam, and 2014 will be in Madagascar. You can check them out at Racing the Planet.

Foot Problems at Western States

June 25, 2013 by · Leave a Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Health, Sports 

This weekend close to 400 runners will start at Squaw Valley and make the trek over the Sierras towards Auburn – 100 miles away. It’s the Western States 100 Mile Endurance Race. I love the race, having completed it three times in the late 80’s. It’s tough and throws a lot at the runners. Cold, heat, extreme heat, streams running down the trail, rocks, dust and grit, water crossings, long ups and long down through numerous canyons – and for many runners, a second sunrise with renewed heat.

Toe Blister

Toe Blister

I will again be working at the Michigan Bluff aid station doing foot care. Later, I will be at the finish line taking care of feet as people finish. Having worked this race for years, I have a good idea of what foot problems to expect. Here’s what I commonly see and a few tips.

First, here are common problems:

  • Toe blisters. Under the toenail, on the tips of toes, between toes, and under toes.
  • Heel blisters. Either at the rear of the heel or at the sides.
  • Ball of the foot blisters. Either in a certain area or across the whole foot.
  • Side of the foot blisters.
  • Stubbed toes. From hitting rocks or roots.
  • Sprained ankles.
  • Sore feet.

Here are some tips:

  • Cut toenails short and them file them smooth. No rough edges to catch on socks or hit the toebox of your shoes.
  • Reduce your calluses as much as possible. This close to the race, don’t file too much off. Aim to get reduce the thickest rough patches.
  • Use Engo Blister Prevention Patches in problem areas – sides of the heels and ball of the foot. They will greatly reduce friction and shear.
  • Pretape any problem areas.
  • Check your insoles for thick edges at the sides of the heel – always a problem area. Thin these down or change insoles. Most side of the heel blisters are caused by these edges.
  • Don’t use Vaseline as a lubricant. Stick to SportSlick, BodyGlide, or a similar lube.
  • Change socks frequently and clean your feet. Today’s trails shoes often have mesh uppers, which allow sand, dirt, and trail dust inside the shoe, on and into your socks, and on your feet.
  • Know how to manage your feet and patch blisters on your own – or your crew should have these skills. You can’t count on aid station people knowing what you need or want or doing it on your time schedule. There may be other runners in front of you or they may be out of supplies.
  • If you feel something inside your shoe, stop and clean it out. Even a small rock can cause problems.
  • Wear gaiters to keep rocks and trail grit and dust out of the top of your shoes.
  • Build your own quality foot care kit. Stock it with what you need and learn to use everything.

Maybe I’ll see you at Michigan Bluff. I hope it’s just to say Hi as you run through.

Have a great race.

More on Blisters and Foot Care

April 4, 2013 by · 3 Comments
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Health, Sports, toenails 

Lisa de Speville, who lives in Johannesburg, South Africa, is a close friend who often emails with insights on blisters and foot care. Yesterday I received the following email and asked whether I could share it with my readers. Her email contains insights on little toe blisters, issues with minimalist shoes, and fit of shoes modified with gaiters.

Here’s her email.

Last week I ran in the 5th edition of the Namib Desert Challenge. I had the pleasure of running in their inaugural event back in 2009 and so it really was a treat to return. Great event, well-organized, wonderful region of Namibia and a lovely warmth and hospitality from the organizers.

Since about June last year I’ve been running in more minimalist shoes. I’ve always enjoyed a softer, more tactile shoe and I took to the pair of Asics Gel Fuji Racers that I won at a race immediately. I liked them so much that I was even running them on road. I like to keep trail shoes for trail and road shoes for road so in about August I bought a pair of Inov-8s. The brand is relatively new in SA so I thought I’d give them a try (my road shoes have been Addias Response or Supernova for more than 10 years). Let’s see… I’m in the Men’s Road X 255 (6mm lift), which is not flat as a pancake. Both the Asics and Inov-8 are quite roomy and my feet enjoy this.

Certainly over the past three months I’ve felt a change in my soles – more firm and muscular, which stands to reason if they’re strengthening and working harder. It is muscle after all. Before I started adventure racing and running ultras my feet were 1.5 shoe sizes smaller and I have a feeling that my feet are another half-size bigger in recent months.

So, the time comes for the Namib Desert Challenge and I get my favorite race shoes stitched with Velcro for my desert gaiters. Everything is ready. I hadn’t worn these shoes for a while. They were still relatively new – perfect for going into a multi-day race – as I’d bought two pairs of the same at an end-of-range special many months ago. I’d flattened the first pair so they were in no condition for this race.

When I put my foot into the shoes in the days before the race to get a feel for them again they felt a little tight, especially across the width of my forefoot. And more than just newness. This is why I figure my feet are a certainly a half-size bigger. Nothing that some lace-loosening wouldn’t sort out.

I started to develop what I call ‘triangle toes’ almost immediately. This is the one thing I avoid like the plague because I hate having sore little piggies. Triangle toes is where the underside of the little toe – and sometimes the neighbor next door – becomes pointed. A blister forms here and can result in a ‘toe sock’ – where the skin of the whole toe comes off, almost like a sock. It’s nasty and I not very fondly recall some incidents of almost toe sock about 10 years ago in adventure races. Since then I take special care pre-race to make sure my little toes stay ’rounded’ and that any harder, potentially triangular skin, is filed off regularly.

I dealt with the resulting blisters – stage 2 or 3 they came up on both little toes – by draining, leaving overnight to dry and then added some tape for the stages. I tried to flatten the triangle under the tape, but it ended up triangular again at the end of the stage. For the most part they gave me little trouble.

At the start of the 55km ultra stage on Day 4, I was debating whether to remove the inner soles for give my feet more room so that the little toes would have more width. It felt odd so I started with them in and my laces not too tight. By the first waterpoint I needed to change something so I took out my innersoles. I had to re-tape a toe a little way further because the change in space altered something. After this, no problem.

I’ve never run in shoes without innersoles and it really changes the feel of the shoe. The Adidas Response TR shoes really suit my feet – I’ve been running in them for 13 years! Taking out the innersole changes them to the Inov-8 feel. Flat and bland inside, which isn’t a bad thing – just different. It also makes the sole feel so much more flat and less cushioned – I felt like I was running in a non-cushioned shoe… for 47km!

Fortunately I was none the worse for wear but, for sure, if my feet hadn’t been conditioned from 10 months of running in ‘flat’ shoes my feet would have felt it. I ran the 5th and final stage without the innersoles too.

Aside from the triangle toes, my only other foot ailments included an injured big toenail on my left (not sure why? perhaps from a kicked stone?). The toenail developed a blister underneath, which was easily solved by drilling into the nail to relieve the pressure. I only discovered this one after the second stage when inspecting my feet. The other blister came up on the long stage under the ‘joint’ of my left big toe, where it connects to the foot. I have some scar tissue there from when I sliced my toe open many, many years ago. It occasionally twinges and at this race, on the long day, I caught exactly this spot so many times on rocks – prodding in. I couldn’t have purposefully aimed as many times in that exact spot! Again, not a bother (fortunately!) and easily solved by draining. On the final stage I didn’t hit it once and so it didn’t flare up again. For the rest, beautiful feet after 230km.

As I haven’t had triangle toes for years, this confirmed for me that width-ways just-that-little-too-tight squeezing of the forefoot is almost guaranteed to cause triangle toes and the resulting underside blisters, with the potential for toe sock, somewhere you do not want to go. In fitting shoes we tend to focus on the amount of space at the front of the shoe but definitely need to pay attention to left-right wiggle room.

Finally… one of the runners had really badly injured toenails (most of them) and the tops of his toes. The reason… too small desert gaiters for his shoes! I don’t know what kind they were (not mine) but they were Velcro attached (around the shoe) and pulling at the top and front of his shoe and causing toe injury. Live and learn.

Lisa de Speville

Johannesburg, South Africa

Adventure Racing:



Types of Blisters

March 11, 2011 by · Leave a Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care 

There are many types of blisters. In my experience, toe and heel blisters are the most common, followed by ball of the foot. Here is a summary of the three.

Toe Blisters

Shoes with a toe box that is too short in length and/or height often cause toe blisters. The toes rub against the toe box and blisters result. Improperly trimmed toenails are also a common cause. Socks will catch on the toenails and push them back into the cuticles, causing blisters or fluid under the nails. Blisters between the toes are commonly caused by friction from skin on skin. Blisters on the bottom of the toes can be caused by friction from the insoles. Oftentimes the pinky toe curls under the neighboring toe, leading to blisters. Shoes with a good toe box and properly trimmed toenails are important to preventing toe blisters. Injinji toe socks can help those prone to toe blisters.

A huge ball of the foot blister

A huge ball of the foot blister

Ball of the Foot Blisters

Blisters on the ball of the foot are generally caused by friction. This may be from the surface of the insole or from socks. Often a lubricant or powder will help prevent these. Trying another pair of insoles can also help because your insole coverings may be rough. An ENGO Patch placed on your insole can effectively reduce friction.

Heel Blisters

One of the more common blisters found on athletes’ feet are on the heels. Is there a reason for this? Why do so many athletes blister there? The best answer is that heels move around a lot inside shoes. Both up and down and side to side. Some shoes have plastic in the heel counters-a piece of plastic that is curved around the back of the shoe’s heel counter. This plastic piece can sometimes be an irritant and rub on your foot, causing a hot spot that turns into a blister. Another irritant is the edge of the insole where it meets the inside of the shoe. Run your fingers around the inside of your shoe. Feel for seams or the hard plastic heel counter that can cause blisters. Feel the edge of the insole. Some insoles have a thick edge, while others are thinner. Another insole may fit better and not have the problem edge. Bottom of the heel blisters can be caused by a rough surface of your insole or socks that are worn through and the weave has irritated the skin.

Of course, there are blisters on the sides of the foot, midfoot, back of the foot above the heel, and more. The above three types are the ones I have found to be the most common. If you can master getting rid of these, and patching them if they occur, you’ll know how to patch any blister.

Toe Blisters at the Gore-Tex TransRockies

September 10, 2010 by · Leave a Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care 

Toe blisters at the TransRockies were a huge problem. We saw many of the same runners day after day during the six-day race. One lady kept coming in every day after her run. She finally told me she was removing all the tape from her toes before running the next day. Bad idea. I informed her tape would act as a skin protector for the day’s run and not to take the tape off.

Every day we saw all kinds of toe blisters. Big ones and little ones. Ones filled with clear fluid and others filled with blood.

Most had the usual blisters between toes and after draining these were patched with Kinesio Tex tape first wrapped from bottom to top and then a second strip from side the side. The second strip going side to side prevents there being a seam hitting on the neighboring toe.

Draining a blister under a toenail

Draining a blister under a toenail

Blisters under the toenails were very common. Many were blood filled. In the photo you can see the thin edge of a blister at the forward edge of a toenail. When possible, I drain the blister there. Since the lifted skin is dead, there is no pain associated with this method. I always use a scalpel or needle and give a test ople to make sure the runner can’t feel the point. If the can’t, it is safe to make the drain hole there. If they can, I have to go through the nail.

Drilling through a nail is pretty straightforward. I use a nail drill but you can also use a needle or even, in a pinch, a paper clip. Hold pressure on the drill or needle as you spin it back and forth until the nail is penetrated. At the TransRockies I drained four or five blisters with my nail drill.

Once the hole is through the nail or a hole is made in the skin, pressure will expel the fluid and the pain and inside pressure will be gone.

Covering the tip of the nail with a strip of tape will help prevent it from catching on socks.

Toe Blister Causes

In my experience, toe blisters are typically caused by too long or rough toenails, and poorly fitting shoes. When toenails are too long, the socks catch on the long nail, or on a rough nail, and are pushed into the quick of the nailbed. A blister forms underneath the nail and pain starts. The answer is to trim nails short and then file them smooth so when you run your finger over the tip of the toe, no edge of a nail is felt.

Of course, toe blisters can also be caused by shoes that are too narrow or too short in the forefoot, overlapping toes, old and worn socks, downhills, and rough fabric on insoles. At the TransRockies there were long steep downhills.

With a bit of forethought and planning, you can avoid painful toe blisters. The best way to start is to do good toenail care.

The Little Toe Triangle

February 6, 2010 by · 15 Comments
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care 

The little toe triangle? Huh? The what?

A recent post on blisters resulted in an email from a reader asking what this was. So I decided to answer his question by posting the explanation out of Fixing Your Feet (4th edition).

We each have two. Little toes that is. The number of problems with these little appendages has impressed me. “What problems?” you ask. It’s all about that little triangle of skin where most problems occur.

If you look at your little toes, your toes may be well rounded and soft. Or they may have the often-typical triangle look where the skin on the bottom of the triangle is hard and callused. The skin on the bottom of the toe forms the point of the triangle. The problem is that on many of our little toes, this bottom point is hard and callused skin. The hard skin is prone to blisters forming underneath as pressure from the toebox creates friction. Often this hardened skin is partially under the skin of the next toe, another pressure area. The outside of the foot, the little toe area, is often more wet and damp than the inside of the shoes, leading to macerated skin. Once softened, this skin can easily blister underneath, or worse yet, the skin can separate, leading to major skin problems.

One of the last runners whose feet I patched at Primal Quest had struggled for the whole event with macerated skin on his feet. When he came into a transition area, the skin had stripped off the bottom point of this triangle-of both feet. I’m sure it was painful and very uncomfortable. Once patched, he continued on as best he could.

The little toe is so small that it is hard to patch well. The use of Micropore or Kinesio tape is a good choice. Even better, in my opinion, is reducing the hard callused skin. Injinji toe socks can also be helpful. Good shoes are vital too. Shoes with a good toebox that allows the toes room to wiggle are best. Once the skin has blistered, 2nd Skin is good to use as a patch. Cut it to fit the blister. Too much and it becomes bulky and rubs on the neighboring toe.

During a race or hike, be watchful of your little toes. This small but potentially troublesome triangle of skin deserves special care. While this common problem happens most often to our pinky toes, it can affect other toes too.

Blisters and Gaiters

January 26, 2010 by · 1 Comment
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, Foot Care Products 

Lisa de Speville, an adventure racer and ultrarunner from Johannesburg, South Africa, and a friend, sends me updates every so often.  I value her input because she is good at thinking through problems. I received this in an email in December and decided to share it with you because it is a great example of how to critically think through the cause of your blisters. Lisa wrote:

Pinky toe blister

Pinky toe blister

Here’s a delicious picture of a common blister. Nice and big and hadn’t popped yet 😉 – on my teammate’s little toe. We teased him about growing a new toe 😉 This developed during the desert trekking stage at the Abu Dhabi Adventure Challenge.

I’m sad to say I got blisters on my little toes and their friend next door – haven’t had these for ages! – during the desert trekking, and they developed early on. My feet have been brilliant for a long time so I wasn’t impressed with these blisters. Essentially the result of ‘triangle toes’ yet, as you know, I’m especially cautious about this and I make sure that I keep my toes smooth with no triangle possibility pre-race. As a result, I have various theories – there has to be an explanation…

First… socks. I was wearing my Asics Gel Trabuco, the same pair I wore during the TransRockies Run in August, where I had no blisters at all. The shoes were relatively new then with not too much more distance in them post TransRockies. The socks I was wearing were my favorites – a local brand, Falke. They make excellent socks and the style is their ‘Adventure sock’, which was discontinued a few years ago. I managed to buy a bunch of pairs directly from them and I’ve been slowly working through them. This pair was a bit older – you know when the fabric gets more coarse? This is my primary explanation – I think these socks had one too many outings and that the coarseness is the reason behind the blisters.

Now I’m sure you’re wondering about sand in my shoes too? I refined my gaiters for this year’s race and they actually did really well. BUT, I did get a bit of sand in my shoes. That stuff in the desert really is powder fine. I generally shook it all out, plus socks, at every checkpoint, which we reached every 4-5 hours. Nothing serious. But, I don’t think sand was to blame; I’ve had worse.

Lisa's home-made gaiters

Lisa's home-made gaiters

My second theory could be around the attachment of the gaiters themselves. We stitched our gaiters on to the front of the shoe. The fabric (lycra) is pulled snug. Could this change the dynamic of the upper? Mmmm… it is a possibility. I’ve had an even better idea for the gaiters – will be making version 3 over the next few months 😉 This is the version of the gaiters we used in the race. This is our team blog site – lots of photos from the race 😉

As an aside… gaiters as much as the shoe itself helps in keeping sand out. Two of my teammates were wearing their Hi-Tec Trail Eruption shoes; I was in Asics and the other was in Salomons (maybe XA Pro… not sure). The Hi-Tec guys, who had sewn their gaiters on exactly the same, got little to no sand in their shoes. Both me and the Salomon one got sand in. Interesting.

Anyway, I wasn’t impressed with the blisters. I’m of the ‘keep ’em drained’ school and so I drained the blisters at each checkpoint and over the course of the stage managed to mostly ‘reverse the process’, keeping the roof on and the fluid out. I did powder my toes with each treatment.

While sewing gaiters for Abu Dhabi Adventure Challenge, I finally got around to posting instructions on my blog for my regular mini gaiters, which I wear every time I am orienteering or running on trails. Keeps trail debris out and prolongs the life of your socks. Pricky socks is my pet hate because no matter how often you wash them you can still feel prickies.

Lisa’s blog can be found at AdventureLisa.blogspot. Check it out. She’s good.

Toes and Toenails

July 30, 2009 by · 3 Comments
Filed under: blister care, Foot Care, toenails 

As you might guess, there were lots of toe and toenail issues at Western States and Badwater. There were blisters on and between toes, blisters under toenails, toenails floating on top of fluid filler blisters, and toe blisters with blood inside. Some were major and some minor – but to the runner whose feet they were on, they were bad.

Toe blisters with toenail lifted off nailbed

Toe blisters with toenail lifted off nailbed

Here are two photos I took that shows what is often common at race finish lines. Neither is pretty. The first shows a foot with a large blister under the big toenail. The nail has lifted off the nailbed and there is trauma to the whole area. You can see how the back of the nail is pushed backwards and upwards. The second toe also has a blister. Both have blood inside. The big toenail is thickened.

The second photo shoes a foot with some gnarly toenails. These nails are possibly inflicted with nail fungus, which has gone untreated. You can see the irregular nail surfaces and how thickened some have become. There is some tissue damage but it is hard to tell from the photo if blisters are present. The nail on the second toe may have a blister under it.

Gnarly, thickened toenails

Gnarly, thickened toenails

These show a common problem that many athletes have not learned – proper toenail care. Thickened nails should be filed down to reduce their height and raised forward edge. Typically, all nails could use some degree of filing to clean up any rough edges. The front edge of all nails should be filed smooth so that when you draw your finger up and over the front of the toe, there is no edge felt.

Any nail rough edge can catch on socks and cause nailbed trauma leading to blister formation. Raised, thickened nails and rough edges lead to problems when the shoe’s toebox is too short or not high enough. Wearing a thick sock, or two socks can add to the bulk inside the shoe and cause pressure on the nails and nailbed. Additionally, socks catching on rough edges of toenails force the nail backwards. Any of these three conditions can lead to toe blisters and blisters under the nail, commonly referred to as “black toenails.”

Care of your toenails should be a regular part of your daily hygiene. Trim them and file them smooth. It a new nail is coming in to replace one lost, file it thin and wrap a Band-Aid around the toe to shape it. New nails often come in irregular in shape and height. While you are at it, use a pumice stone on any toe calluses, especially on the bottom of the baby toe.

If you have toenails that are discolored (with white, yellow, or even brown and black) patches on or under the nail, are thickened, or the nail is crumbling, you may have toenail fungus. The earlier you take care of this, the better. Schedule an appointment with your doctor. Toenail fungus can get worse over time.

If nothing else, before a big race or event, spend some time trimming and filing your toenails to give yourself a better chance of completing the race without problems.

All Kinds of Blistered Feet

July 29, 2006 by · 4 Comments
Filed under: Footcare, Footwear, Health, Sports, Travel 

Last night I got home from the Badwater Ultramarathon. This 135-mile road race takes runners from Death Valley to the Mt. Whitney Portal at the southeastern end of California’s Sierra’s. We were treated to the beauty of the desert, especially at night. The heat you ask? The highest I heard mentioned was 123F. Of course that’s air temperature. The road, where the runners are, can get anywhere from 40 to 70 degrees hotter. I saw someone with an iron skillet sitting in the sun—waiting to fry an egg.
Dscf0060_1     Since my life revolves around feet, what did I see? Let me describe what I saw and patched. Virtually none of the 85 starters had feet untouched from trauma and blisters. The most common was toe blisters. These were most often at the cuticle of the toenail from pressure pushing the toenail back into the cuticle. In many of these, the blister lifts up the nail off the nailbed. Second most common were blisters on the heels and the balls of the feet. And finally, many had blisters extending between the toes. Toes, far and away, took the most beating.
Dscf0047     The largest was one from the base of the little toe down underneath a callus on the ball of the foot, and across the mid-foot to the other side of the foot. I could see fluid moving under the loose skin.
     Some had blood in the blister—evidence of trauma from pounding or pressure. These are particularly difficult to manage. The general rule is not to pop a blister if there is blood inside because it opens up the circularity system to possible infection. But, the runners want to continue, so you pop the blister, patch it carefully, and give them special instruction of its care.
Fixingyourfeet1_3     I patched quite a few feet and Gillian of, patched a lot too. In the coming posts, I’ll talk about some of these blisters, how to best avoid them, and how to patch them.
     As a side note, take a moment and check out my new website, and read about the new 4th edition of my book, titled, what else, Fixing Your Feet. If you don’t have it and you are an athlete, you need it. If you have an earlier edition, it’s time to upgrade to get all the new information and tips. After all, it’s important to keep our feet happy.

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